The rough stones were brought into the city by traders from the east. The boy's father heated the stones in a hot oven until they turned a deep reddish colour. This colour was very highly valued by wealthy citizens and traders.
The boy's father then chipped away at the red stone until it was the correct shape and size. Then he worked the stones into beads using small drills. The drills were difficult to use, and sometimes beads would break.
When the beads were finished, they were polished using a mixture of water and a fine, sand-like powder.