By the beginning of the twentieth century, archaeologists and historians in India were becoming familiar with an ancient city located in the Indus Valley which was known as Harappa. However, people did not know who had built and lived in the city or when it had been built.
About 600 kilometres away from Harappa was the site of another ruined city. Local people knew of these ruins which were close to the modern town of Dokri. However, the site was not thought to be very old.
In about 1910-11, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India visited the site near Dokri. They examined a stupa from the second century B.C. which stood high on a mound of bricks and earth. The archaeologists also noted many large mounds of earth covering a large area of ground.
Several years later, an archaeologist named Rakhal Das Banerji visited the site. Banerji believed that buried beneath the mounds of earth were the ruins of an old city. In the next few years, Banerji visited Mohenjo-daro several times and began to believe that it was in fact a very ancient site.